Neurological Healing and Brain Function Support


Alpha-glycerophosphocholine (Alpha-GPC)

1. alpha-Glycerophosphocholine in the mental recovery of cerebral ischemic attacks. An Italian multicenter clinical trial.
The clinical efficacy and the tolerability of alpha-glycerophosphocholine (alpha-GPC), a drug able to provide high levels of choline for the nervous cells of the brain and to protect their cell walls, have been tested in a clinical open multicenter trial on 2044 patients suffering from recent stroke or transient ischemic attacks. alpha-GPC was administered after the attack at the daily dose of 1000 mg im for 28 days and orally at the dose of 400 mg tid during the following 5 months after the first phase. The evaluation of the efficacy on the psychic recovery was done by the Mathew Scale (MS) during the period of im drug administration, and using the Mini Mental State Test (MMST), the Crichton Rating Scale (CRS), and the Global Deterioration Scale (GDS) during the following period of oral administration.

The MS mean increased 15.9 points in 28 days in a statistically significant way (p < 0.001) from 58.7 to 74.6. At the end of the 5-month oral administration, the CRS mean significantly decreased 4.3 points, from 20.2 to 15.9 (p < 0.001); the MMST mean significantly increased (p < 0.001) from 21 to 24.3 at the end of the trial, reaching the "normality" score at the 3rd month assessment. The GDS score at the end of the trial corresponded to "no cognitive decline" or "forgetfulness" in 71% of the patients. Adverse events were reported in 2.14% of patients. Takeaways:

• Confirms the therapeutic role of alpha-GPC on the cognitive recovery of patients with acute stroke or TIA
• Low percentage of adverse events confirms its excellent tolerability

2. Effect of L-alpha-glyceryl-phosphorylcholine on amnesia caused by scopolamine.
The present study was carried out to test the effects of L-alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine (L-alpha-GFC) on memory impairment induced by scopolamine in man.

Thirty-two healthy young volunteers were randomly allocated to four different groups. They were given a ten day pretreatment with either L-alpha-GFC or placebo, p.o., and on the eleventh day either scopolamine or placebo, i.m. Before and 0.5, 1, 2, 3, and 6 h after injection the subjects were given attention and mnemonic tests. The findings of this study indicate that the drug is able to antagonize impairment of attention and memory induced by scopolamine.


• Alpha – GPC was able to counteract memory and attention impairment induced by scopolamine (medication used in the treatment of motion sickness and postoperative nausea and vomiting).

CDP-choline (citicoline)

3. Citicoline improves verbal memory in aging.
A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group design was employed in the initial study. After data analysis, a subgroup was identified whose members had relatively inefficient memories. These subjects were recruited for a second study that used a crossover design. The subjects took either placebo or citicoline, 1000 mg/d, for 3 months in the initial study. In the crossover study, subjects took both placebo and citicoline, 2000 mg/d, each for 2 months.

The subjects were 47 female and 48 male volunteers 50 to 85 years old. They were screened for dementia, memory disorders, and other neurological problems. Of the subjects with relatively inefficient memories, 32 participated in the crossover study.

Verbal memory was tested at each study visit using a logical memory passage. Plasma choline concentrations were measured at baseline; at days 30, 60, and 90 in the initial study; and at day 60 of each treatment condition in the crossover study. Plasma choline concentrations and memory scores were analyzed using repeated-measures analysis of variance and covariance, followed by planned comparisons when appropriate.

In the initial study, citicoline therapy improved delayed recall on logical memory only for the subjects with relatively inefficient memories. In the crossover study, the higher dosage of citicoline was clearly associated with improved immediate and delayed logical memory.


• Citicoline therapy improved verbal memory functioning in older individuals with relatively inefficient memories.

4. Improved Attentional Performance Following Citicoline Administration in Healthy Adult Women
The present study assessed the potential cognitive-enhancing effects of citicoline, a dietary supplement, in healthy adult women. Specifically, it was hypothesized that citicoline supplementation would be associated with improved attention compared to placebo.

The investigation was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled three-arm study. Sixty healthy adult women ages 40 – 60 completed a clinical screening visit, including a medical exam. After study enrollment each subject was randomly assigned to one of three groups: a daily oral dose of 250 mg citicoline, 500 mg citicoline, or placebo for 28 days.

After 28 days of supplementation, individuals in the 250 mg group made fewer omission (p = 0.04) and commission (p = 0.03) errors compared to those in the placebo group. Individuals in the 500 mg group made significantly fewer commission errors compared to those in the placebo group (p = 0.03) and trended toward making fewer omission errors (p = 0.07).


• Participants who were given citicoline showed a significant improvement in their ability to produce correct responses on the CPT-II, likely due to improved cognitive inhibition.
• Citicoline may improve attentional performance in middle-aged women and may reduce attention deficits associated with CNS disorders.

Bacopa (Bacopa monnieri)

5. Randomized controlled trial of standardized Bacopa monniera extract in age-associated memory impairment.
The goal was to study the efficacy of standardized Bacopa monniera extract (SBME) in subjects with age-associated memory impairment (AAMI) without any evidence of dementia or psychiatric disorder.

A double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized study design was employed. The subjects received either 125 mg of SBME or placebo twice a day for a period of 12 weeks followed by a placebo period of another 4 weeks (total duration of the trial 16 weeks). Each subject was evaluated for cognition on a battery of tests comprising mental control, logical memory, digit forward, digit backward, visual reproduction and paired associate learning.

• Bacopa resulted in significant improvement in memory control, logical memory and paired associated learning during the 12-week therapy.
• Bacopa is a viable, efficacious therapy for subjects with age-associated memory impairment.

6. Effects of a standardized Bacopa monnieri extract on cognitive performance, anxiety, and depression in the elderly: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
Study aims were to evaluate effects of Bacopa monnieri whole plant standardized dry extract on cognitive function and affect and its safety and tolerability in healthy elderly study participants. The study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial with a placebo run-in of 6 weeks and a treatment period of 12 weeks.

Fifty-four (54) participants, 65 or older (mean 73.5 years), without clinical signs of dementia, 54 participants were recruited and randomized to Bacopa or placebo. Forty-eight (48) completed the study with 24 in each group.

The primary outcome variable was the delayed recall score from the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT). Other cognitive measures were the Stroop Task assessing the ability to ignore irrelevant information, the Divided Attention Task (DAT), and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) letter-digit test of immediate working memory. Affective measures were the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CESD)-10 depression scale, and the Profile of Mood States. Vital signs were also monitored.

Controlling for baseline cognitive deficit using the Blessed Orientation-Memory-Concentration test, Bacopa participants had enhanced AVLT delayed word recall memory scores relative to placebo. Stroop results were similarly significant, with the Bacopa group improving and the placebo group unchanged. CESD-10 depression scores, combined state plus trait anxiety scores, and heart rate decreased over time for the Bacopa group but increased for the placebo group. No effects were found on the DAT, WAIS digit task, mood, or blood pressure. The dose was well tolerated with few adverse events (Bacopa n = 9, placebo n = 10), primarily stomach upset.


• Bacopa participants showed improvements in all cognitive and depression assessments with no side effects.
• Bacopa is a viable option for safely enhancing cognitive performance in the aging.


7. L-theanine relieves positive, activation, and anxiety symptoms in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder: an 8-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2-center study.
This is a first study designed to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of L-theanine augmentation of antipsychotic treatment of patients with chronic schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder.

60 patients with DSM-IV schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder participated in an 8-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. 400 mg/d of L-theanine was added to ongoing antipsychotic treatment from February 2006 until October 2008. The outcome measures were the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HARS), the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) for neurocognitive functioning, and additional measures of general functioning, side effects, and quality of life.

40 patients completed the study protocol. Compared with placebo, L-theanine augmentation was associated with reduction of anxiety (P = .015; measured by the HARS scale) and positive (P = .009) and general psychopathology (P < .001) scores (measured by the PANSS 3-dimensional model). According to the 5-dimension model of psychopathology, L-theanine produced significant reductions on PANSS positive (P = .004) and activation factor (P = .006) scores compared to placebo. The effect sizes (Cohen d) for these differences ranged from modest to moderate (0.09-0.39). PANSS negative and CANTAB task scores, general functioning, side effect, and quality of life measures were not affected by L-theanine augmentation. Takeaways:

• L-theanine, in antipsychotic therapy can alleviate positive, activation, and anxiety symptoms in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder patients.
• L-theanine was found to be a safe and well-tolerated medication.

Ginseng (Panax ginseng)

8. Panax ginseng (G115) improves aspects of working memory performance and subjective ratings of calmness in healthy young adults.
The present study assessed the effects of Panax ginseng (G115) on subjective mood and aspects of ‘working’ memory processes, following a single dose and following sub-chronic (7 days) ingestion, in healthy volunteers.

A placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized, crossover was utilized. Thirty volunteers (mean age 22.87 years; SD 4.01) received each treatment (200 mg; 400 mg; placebo) for 8 days, in a counter balanced order, with a 6-day wash-out period. Testing was on days 1 and 8 of each treatment period, at pre-dose, 1, 2.5 and 4 h post-dose.

Results revealed dose-related treatment effects (p < 0.05). Two hundred milligrams slowed a fall in mood at 2.5 and 4 h on day 1 and at 1 and 4 h on day 8, but slowed responding on a mental arithmetic task across day 1 and at 1 and 2.5 h on day 8. The 400 mg dose also improved calmness (restricted 2.5 and 4 h on day 1) and improved mental arithmetic across days 1 and 8. Takeaway: • Panax ginseng may contribute to improved memory and a state of calmness. Sage (Salvia officinalis) 9. An extract of Salvia (sage) with anticholinesterase properties improves memory and attention in healthy older volunteers. This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, balanced, five-period crossover study investigated the acute effects on cognitive performance of a standardized extract of Salvia officinalis in older adults. Twenty volunteers (>65 years of age, mean = 72.95) received four active doses of extract (167, 333, 666 and 1332 mg) and a placebo with a 7-day wash-out period between visits. Assessment involved completion of the Cognitive Drug Research computerized assessment battery. On study days, treatments were administered immediately following a baseline assessment with further assessment at 1, 2.5, 4 and 6 h post treatment.

Compared with the placebo condition (which exhibited the characteristic performance decline over the day), the 333-mg dose was associated with significant enhancement of secondary memory performance at all testing times. The same measure benefited to a lesser extent from other doses. There also were significant improvements to accuracy of attention following the 333-mg dose. In vitro analysis confirmed cholinesterase inhibiting properties for the extract.

• Sage extract produced improvements in both memory and attention for the test participants.

Turmeric (Curcuma longa)

11. Curcumin alleviates cisplatin-induced learning and memory impairments.
The present study has been designed to investigate the role of curcumin on cisplatin-induced cognitive impairment and to reveal mechanisms of cisplatin’s detrimental actions on cognition in rats. Animals were treated with cisplatin (5mg/kg/week) and/or curcumin (300mg/kg/day) for 5weeks. Morris water maze test was used to assess spatial learning and memory. Enzymatic activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were evaluated from hippocampus and plasma samples, and malondialdehyde (MDA), which is the end-product of lipid peroxidation, was determined by a colorimetric method.

Our results showed that cisplatin (5mg/kg/week, 5weeks) caused learning and memory deficits, elevated MDA content, decreased SOD activity in the hippocampus and plasma, and AChE activity in the hippocampus. Curcumin improved learning and memory in rats with administration of cisplatin. In addition, curcumin significantly reduced the level of MDA and increased the activities of SOD and AChE.

• Curcumin counteracts drug induced learning and memory impairment by restoring acetylcholine function and increased oxidative status.

12. Curcumin inhibits formation of amyloid beta oligomers and fibrils, binds plaques, and reduces amyloid in vivo.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) involves amyloid beta (Abeta) accumulation, oxidative damage, and inflammation, and risk is reduced with increased antioxidant and anti-inflammatory consumption. The phenolic yellow curry pigment curcumin has potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities and can suppress oxidative damage, inflammation, cognitive deficits, and amyloid accumulation.

Since the molecular structure of curcumin suggested potential Abeta binding, we investigated whether its efficacy in AD models could be explained by effects on Abeta aggregation. Under aggregating conditions in vitro, curcumin inhibited aggregation (IC(50) = 0.8 microM) as well as disaggregated fibrillar Abeta40 (IC(50) = 1 microM), indicating favorable stoichiometry for inhibition.

Curcumin was a better Abeta40 aggregation inhibitor than ibuprofen and naproxen, and prevented Abeta42 oligomer formation and toxicity between 0.1 and 1.0 microM. Under EM, curcumin decreased dose dependently Abeta fibril formation beginning with 0.125 microM. The effects of curcumin did not depend on Abeta sequence but on fibril-related conformation. AD and Tg2576 mice brain sections incubated with curcumin revealed preferential labeling of amyloid plaques. In vivo studies showed that curcumin injected peripherally into aged Tg mice crossed the blood-brain barrier and bound plaques. When fed to aged Tg2576 mice with advanced amyloid accumulation, curcumin labeled plaques and reduced amyloid levels and plaque burden.

• Curcumin directly binds small beta-amyloid species to block aggregation and fibril formation in vitro and in vivo.
• This suggests that low dose curcumin effectively disaggregates Abeta as well as prevents fibril and oligomer formation, supporting the rationale for curcumin use in clinical trials preventing or treating AD.

Ginkgo biloba

13. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 in a sample of cognitively intact older adults: neuropsychological findings.
The purpose of this research was to conduct the first known, large-scaled clinical trial of the efficacy of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) on the neuropsychological functioning of cognitively intact older adults. Two hundred and sixty-two community-dwelling volunteers (both male and female) 60 years of age and older, who reported no history of dementia or significant neurocognitive impairments and obtained Mini-Mental State Examination total scores of at least 26, were examined via a 6-week, randomized, double-blind, fixed-dose, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, clinical trial. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761(n = 131; 180 mg/day) or placebo (n = 131) for 6 weeks.

Efficacy measures consisted of participants’ raw change in performance scores from pretreatment baseline to those obtained just prior to termination of treatment on the following standardized neuropsychological measures: Selective Reminding Test (SRT), Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III Block Design (WAIS-III BD) and Digit Symbol-Coding (WAIS-III DS) subtests, and the Wechsler Memory Scale-III Faces I (WMS-III FI) and Faces II (WMS-III FII) subtests.

Analyses of covariance indicated that cognitively intact participants who received 180 mg of EGb 761 daily for 6 weeks exhibited significantly more improvement on SRT tasks involving delayed (30 min) free recall (p < 0.04) and recognition (p < 0.01) of noncontextual, auditory-verbal material, compared with the placebo controls. The EGb 761 group also demonstrated significantly greater improvement on the WMS-III FII subtest assessing delayed (30 min) recognition (p < 0.025) of visual material (i.e. human faces), compared with the placebo group. Takeaway:
• This study produced sufficient evidence to suggest the potential efficacy of Ginkgo biloba in enhancing neuropsychological/memory processes of cognitively intact older adults, 60 years of age and over.


14. Dietary magnesium intake and the incidence of depression: A 20-year follow-up study.
This research is a part of the Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease Risk Factor (KIHD) Study, conducted on a sample of 2320 Eastern Finnish men aged 42-61 years old at the baseline. Magnesium intake was assessed by a 4-day food record. Hospital discharge diagnosis of unipolar depressive disorder was used as an outcome variable.

Participants in the middle tertile of dietary magnesium intake had a statistically significantly decreased risk of getting a hospital discharge diagnosis of depression compared to participants in the lowest tertile of magnesium intake (HR 0.49, CI 0.25-0.95, P=0.035) in the prospective setting after multivariable adjustments. In addition, an inverse association between magnesium intake and the risk of depression was found when the combined middle and highest tertiles of magnesium intake were compared with the lowest tertile (HR 0.53, CI 0.29-0.95, P=0.033).

• Magnesium intake may have an effect on the risk to develop depression based on the results of this study.


15. Effect of zinc supplementation on mood states in young women: a pilot study.
The relation of zinc (Zn) nutriture to brain development and function has been elucidated. The purpose of this study is to examine whether Zn supplementation improves mood states in young women. The study used a double-blind, randomized and placebo-controlled procedure. The major outcomes were psychological measures, somatic symptoms and serum Zn. Thirty women were placed randomly and in equal numbers into two groups, and they ingested one capsule containing multivitamins (MVs) or MV and 7 mg Zn daily for 10 weeks.

Women who took MV and Zn showed a significant reduction in anger-hostility score (P=0.009) and depression-dejection score (P=0.011) in the Profile of Moods State (POMS) and a significant increase in serum Zn concentration (P=0.008), whereas women who took only MV did not.

• Zinc supplementation may be effective in reducing anger and depression.

Citation links:


Standard Dose

Take 6 sprays by mouth, twice daily.

Higher Dose

Take 12 sprays by mouth, twice daily.

Optimal Use

  • Spray, swish and swallow. You may take other Results RNA formulas immediately.
  • Do not eat or drink for 2 minutes following.


Serving size: 12 Sprays

Servings Per Container (2oz/60mL): Approx. 30
Servings Per Container (4oz/120mL): Approx. 60

Proprietary Blend Tincture 250 mg*



Alpha-glycerophosphocholine (Alpha-GPC), CDP-choline (citicholine), Bacopa (Bacopa monnieri), L-Theanine, Ginseng (Panax ginseng), Sage (Salvia officinalis), Tumeric (Curcuma
longa), Ginkgo biloba, Magnesium, Zinc, Peppermint Leaf (Mentha x piperita) and Natural Trace Minerals.

Other Ingredients: Ultra-Pure Deionized Water

* % Daily value not established


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